PostHeaderIcon Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

They are the proceedings relating to the regulation of environmental conditions to make more comfortable the climate of dwellings or industrial purposes.
Heating obviously raises the temperature in a given space, with respect to atmospheric temperature, to a satisfactory level.

Ventilation systems control the supply and outlet air, independently or in combination with heating or air conditioning systems, to provide oxygen to the occupants of the premises and eliminate odors.

Air conditioning systems control the atmosphere of the interior space: temperature, humidity, flow and purity of the air, for the comfort of its occupants or to preserve materials that there are handled or stored.

Heating

The heating can be direct, as in the case of fireplaces or stoves in a room, or a central system with steam, hot water or hot air that runs through tubes and pipes to transport its heat energy to all the rooms of a building.

The first heating system was the bonfire, with which people heated their dwellings. The Romans developed stoves and braziers of different types, some of which are still used in many parts of the world.

Fireplaces

The chimney is an improvement of the method of heating room by a fire. First chimneys were embedded in the wall of the room, kitchen fitted with ducts short channel to the outside the combustion smoke.

Common chimneys consist of a pyre enclosed by three walls of brick and topped by a Bell and a flue pipe and other products of combustion. In the fire there is a metal grill with legs or metal supports. The grill is used for burning fuels such as coal, coke, or charcoal,

Useful heat which provide fireplaces is the direct emission of heat radiating from the fuel to the burning and indirect radiation from the heating of the walls that surround it. Between 85 and 90% of the heat generated by combustion is lost in the gases that escape through the shot. Fireplaces are built in modern homes primarily for aesthetic reasons rather than for heating efficiency. There are higher yielding modern fireplaces that have inner tubes that heat the cold air from the room and divide it by the same.

Stoves

Stoves are closed containers, of metal or ceramic materials, in which the fuel is burned. They are more advanced with respect to fireplaces, since its surface is in contact with the air in the room and transmit heat by convection. An effective stove can release about 75% of the energy of the fuel. The fuels used are wood, coal, coke, peat gas and kerosene.

Central heating

Central heating systems in a single heating Center heats many rooms or an entire building.

Steam systems have been developed around the year 1850.
Current central heating systems tend to distribute heat from a central boiler to a building or a group of them. More extensive systems tend to operate with steam or hot water. This system is used in many homes, in almost all office buildings, hotels and in large areas like shopping malls or department stores.

Boilers of these systems use fuels such as oil, gas or coal. When the fuel is burning warm the metal walls of the boiler, and heat is transferred to the water, steam, or air.

Most of the boilers, both large and small, are automatic operation, controlled by thermostats located in rooms will be heated. Which operate with oil or gas only require the burner control to regulate the heat, but which operate with solid fuel require more maintenance. They require the admission of additional fuel and disposal of ashes the feeder or grilled. The combustion chamber and the boiler are located in an isolated area.

Devices that transfer the heat generated by the central boiler room are radiators and convectors. Radiators consist of a series of bars or blocks of wrought iron, presenting many surfaces to dissipate more heat. Convectors consist of a network of tubes of a reduced thickness of steel and non-ferrous metals. This network is placed in enclosures so as to allow air circulation, and they carry out the heating process by convection than by radiation. Warehouses, industries and factories usually carry this type of convectors, incorporating a few electric fans which divert air to the radiant surface.

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